The Influence of Gender and Desire for a Committed Relationship on Jealousy


Sarah D. Gross







                There is a common assumption that gender influences jealousy. Moreover, the desire to attain a committed relationship may also impact jealousy. 83 students at a liberal arts college were surveyed on the preceding factors. The results did not support the evolutionary hypotheses that women are innately more jealous than men, especially in relationship to emotional infidelity, and men are more jealous in relationship to sexual infidelity. Also, the desire to obtain or manage a committed relationship did not suggest an elevated degree of jealousy. Jealousy is an issue that is detrimental to many relationships, however, and may be alleviated through a greater understanding of a partner’s previous experience with infidelity.






            Jealousy can be thought of as a manifestation of insecurities. Havelock Ellis compared jealousy to a “dragon which slays love under the pretence of keeping it alive.” Jealousy is an odd emotion, in that, sometimes it is secretly sought after. In the New Scientist article, “If I Can’t Have you,” jealousy is presented as, “while it can be threatening, its absence may be interpreted as a different sort of threat, namely that one's lover has no interest in his or her fidelity because he has no deep, abiding interest in that person” (Daly and Wilson, 2006). Those experiencing jealousy may try to assuage their feelings through maladaptive behaviors. One thousand women in the U.S. are killed annually by current or ex-lovers.

            Jealousy is a fascinating topic and a vicious cycle that lies in the heart of many relationships. Jealousy is an issue that is detrimental to many relationships and may be alleviated through a greater understanding of gender differences and level of commitment. 

            A broad scope of research has focused on an evolutionary foundation for jealousy, and there is much debate pertaining to the validity of this concept. “Evolutionary psychologists hypothesized two decades ago that men and women would differ psychologically in the weighting given to cues that trigger jealousy” (Shackelford et al. 2004). This evolutionary view is also known as jealousy as a specific innate module. Gender differences between emotional and sexual infidelities in relationship to jealousy have been a core argument within the evolutionary insight. It has been suggested that this evolutionary discrepancy stems from vagueness of paternity but certainty of maternity and the devotion of a mother to her offspring.  Women’s main concern is abandonment and the removal of financial support, though there would be an unwavering love for a child born even from an affair.  An emotional attachment is more likely to end a relationship, which is why women would be inherently more jealous of this type of infidelity. Men face the difficulties of having to support another man’s child. “Thus, males might well be endowed with genes that cause them to react strongly to cues that their partners are sexually unfaithful” (Sabini and Silver, 2000). In opposition to this view, Harris, in 2000, did a study testing psychophysiological reactivity while participants were told to imagine a partner’s infidelity. The study showed that men did have a greater reaction to sexual images even when the images did not suggest infidelity. Women also did not respond more strongly to emotional infidelity. Psychophysiological tests measure more arousal factors rather than levels of jealousy. Hughes (2004) did a questionnaire study which resulted in the findings that men were more distressed by opposite-sex infidelity and females were equally distressed by infidelity with either sex. She took this as a backing of the evolutionary theory; men would be more distressed of a male infidelity due to the fact that the males can impregnate their partner, therefore having the increasing possibility of having to extend financial resources to another man’s child. Women are equally threatened because emotional attachment can be made with either sex.

            Gender roles are inherently related to evolution. Jealousy is an emotion reflecting weakness and desperation. Females are predominately associated with emotion, which may be why they are thought of as being more jealous than males.  Males are generally associated with “tougher” forms of emotion, such as anger. However, Eisler et al. (2000) found that men who scored higher on the Masculine Gender Role Stress Scale expressed a higher amount of jealousy. “Men are socialized to be competitive and to develop power and control strategies that encourage expressions of anger and curtail vulnerability” (Eisler et al. 2000). Losing a female partner is surrendering power to another man. A study done by Green and Sabini(2006) found that emotional infidelity was more upsetting to both genders, though it had a larger effect on the female population. Their study also revealed that “individuals of both genders were angrier and blamed their partners more for sexual infidelities but were more hurt by emotional ones” (Green and Sabini, 2006). Knox et al. (2007) conducted research that focused on the male reaction to jealousy. Their results showed that men are more likely to turn to aggression or alcohol when having jealous feelings. Social learning theory suggests that this is how men have learned to demonstrate their love and devotion (Knox et al. 2007).Violating men's proprietary entitlements towards "their" women has a special power to motivate violence” (Daly and Wilson, 2006).  Men are in competition with other men for reproductive opportunities. Our society has not moved far from a survival of the fittest paradigm, especially in relationship to sex.

            Gender may also affect forgiveness in relationship to infidelity. In an article entitled, “Former partners and new rivals as threats to a relationship: Infidelity type, gender, and commitment as factors related to distress and forgiveness,” sexual infidelity was viewed as a greater threat by both males and females in regards to a former partner over a rival new threat. In relationship to emotional infidelity, only the females stated that they would be more distressed by former partners (Cann and Baucom, 2004). In alignment with the evolutionary thought, females may be concerned that there is already an emotional connection that has been established, which may be why they are more jealous of former partners in regards to sexual infidelity. A man would be more tempted to leave his mate and therefore give financial reassurance to a former partner. Women may feel more comfortable abandoning contraceptives when having sexual intercourse with a former partner, which may lead their current partners to feel more of a threat in this situation.

            Previous research has found that women are more jealous of a rival’s physical attractiveness, whereas rival-status evokes jealousy in men. Buunk and Dijkistra(2004) studied this concept, giving their participants hypothetical situations pertaining to the preceding characteristics. The primary emotional characteristic for emotional infidelity was threat, whereas the primary emotional characteristic for sexual infidelity was anger and betrayal. Buunk and Dijkistra discovered that “following emotional infidelity, in men, a rival's dominance, and in women, a rival's physical attractiveness, evoked feelings of threat but not feelings of anger-betrayal” (Buunk and Dijkistra, 2004), which corresponded with the initial belief. In addition, feelings of anger were distinguished in men, but not in women, in relationship to sexual infidelity and a rival’s physical attractiveness. Singh(2004) studied the female attractiveness stereotype, having undesirable qualities such as partaking in more extra-marital affairs, cross-culturally using a series of pictures with differing waist-to-hip ratios. Participants judged the more attractive figures( the ones with smaller WHR) as being less faithful than others photographed. This study also followed up with an examination of US females.” Compared to women with high WHRs, low WHR women reported in engaging in more flirting to make dates jealous.  In 2004, Bohner and Wanke created a femininity and masculinity scale and related their findings to a survey relating to jealousy. This was a more creative way of exploring gender differences, as it was more a participant’s own subjective view of which gender they are more aligned with rather than the objective biological sex. The study backs up previous evolutionary thought, in which the participants more paralleled with feminine traits were more distressed by emotional infidelity and jealousy stemming from sexual infidelity came from the participants with more masculine traits (Bohner and Wanke, 2004).

            Studies focusing on the evolutionary view of jealousy have been operationalized in various ways, such as  examining homicide rates associated with  sexual jealousy and the physiological arousals occurring after stories adapted to either sexual or physical infidelities. “However, the questionnaire results with forced-choice outcomes are those that have most consistently supported the evolutionary view” (Sabini and Silver,2000). The evolutionary view of jealousy is not without its criticisms. When using certain questionnaires, inferences might be made that may skew the results, depending on how certain items are presented. Men are likely to assume that women partaking in sexual infidelity are also emotionally attached, whereas women do not have this same assumption. Therefore, it is important for questionnaires to verify this separation or utilize narratives (Sabini and Silver,2000).  Another factor which is subject to skew the

results is the use of nonstudent samples, especially related to age. “The failure to find effects in nonstudent samples suggests that the effect might be: a) a life-stage effect or b) an educational effect” (Green and Sabini, 2006). Jealousy may be heightened within the college population because this is “the period when concerns connected to reproduction should be most acute” (Green and Sabini, 2006). This same reproductive value declines with age, therefore leading to a decline in jealousy. Another set of research conducted by Shackelford et al. (2004) found that, when given a forced- choice dilemma, older women were more likely to choose sexual infidelity as the higher stressor, as opposed to younger women’s selection of emotional infidelity.

            One case in opposition to the evolutionary analysis of jealousy is the theory of cognitive load, which states limitations to learning in the form of how much information an individual’s memory can hold within a certain time frame. One study tested cognitive load by having the participants within the experimental group simulating both sexual and emotional infidelity while simultaneously trying to remember a long string of digits. The participants were then asked to state which form of infidelity they found more distressing. Both males and females found sexual infidelity to be more distressing. In a society flooded with sexual images, it is not hard to conceive why sexual infidelity may be easier to assimilate into vivid images. Those under cognitive load may have a hard time coming up with scenarios illustrating emotional infidelities. “Cognitive load probably affects mechanisms involved in simulating infidelity experiences, thus seriously challenging the usefulness of cognitive load manipulations in testing hypotheses involving simulations”(Barrett et al. 2006). 

            “Falling in love entails forsaking alternatives, and when you've burnt bridges, you want to be sure that your beloved is equally committed( Daly and Wilson, 2006). A majority of the research done on jealousy has been in relationship to the evolution model discussed previously. Another interesting facet of jealousy is how committed an individual is to their partner. The willingness or desire of an individual to be in a committed relationship may heighten the sense of jealousy the individual experiences. The more committed an individual is to a partner, the probable stronger yearning there is for the partner to be faithful and therefore a stronger suspicion towards infidelity.  Rydell et al. (2004) compiled results based on this subject. Two studies were done. Both studies had the participants complete relationship commitment measures for their current relationship and a jealousy scale. The participants in the first study were given feedback which manipulated their view of relationship alternatives. The second study manipulated the participants’ feedback of relationship compatibility. The results of these two studies showed that those in more committed relationships encountered more jealousy when given unattractive relationship alternatives and also described more jealousy when given negative accounts of their relationship compatibility. Marelich et al. (2003) studied participants who were either dating or in a marital relationship. Significant associations were evidenced between relationship insecurity and jealousy, though the correlation between relationship commitment and emotional arousability showed mixed results (Marelich et al. 2003). In the previously mentioned study done by Harris (2000) concerning psychophysiological reactivity, she found that “women with committed sexual relationship experience showed reactivity patterns similar to those of men,” though the validity of the research is skeptical. In the previously mentioned article concerning the new rival threats or the threat of a former partner,for women, measures of relationship commitment were related to distress and forgiveness. For men, these measures were related to forgiveness only”(Cann and Baucom, 2004). This may suggest that females perceive relationship commitment as more significant than males.  Shackelford et al. (2002-03) conducted similar research using forced-choice dilemmas to see which types of infidelities, according to gender, would be more apt to lead to a termination of the relationship. The results supported their hypothesis and the evolutionary hypothesis. Men were less likely to forgive a partner after sexual infidelity and more likely to terminate that relationship, whereas women had the same feelings for emotional infidelity (Shackelford et al. 2002-03).   

            Concurring with the evolutionary view of jealousy in relationship to gender, the current study done at an educational institution, theorized that females were more jealous of emotional infidelity and males more jealous of sexual infidelity. The evolutionary theory seems a little far-fetched. This discrepancy may be based on the fact that females are more jealous of emotional infidelity because having a companion and someone to confide in is more important to females. Therefore, they would be jealous of their partner experiencing that bond with another individual, especially an individual who has had a previous relationship with their partner of infidelity and had already established a history and attachment. Males are less likely to be jealous of emotional infidelity because they have been socialized to hide their emotions and convey strength. Males view sexuality as a symbol of empowerment, which is why the current research indicated they would be more jealous of their partner’s sexual infidelity. It is rationalized that males are emasculated by the thought that another man could be satisfying their partner. The researcher agreed with the concept of men believing that if their partner was having sexual relations with another individual, they were also emotionally invested in the individual. The other hypothesis being tested is that individuals in or desiring a committed relationship would express more jealous emotions, because the more one has invested in a relationship, or is willing to invest, the more concerned they will be with prolonging that relationship. The current hypotheses were tested through a forced-choice questionnaire administered to students at a small Midwestern university.       








83 participants were chosen from a convenience sample from 3 upper-level business classes and by random in a student lounge at a small Midwestern private liberal arts university. The participation in the research was voluntary and unrewarded. The researcher left the room as the students filled out the surveys, so they did not feel obligated to participate in the research, which may have lead to an increased number of demand characteristics or yea and nay saying. The presence of a professor in each of the classrooms may have lead to an increased feeling of obligation, however. The highest obligatory impression most likely ensued from the personal approaching of individuals in the student lounge. The participants may not have been representative of the university population; however, the population is fairly ethnically homogenous, the ages and majors would have been similar for the classes that were chosen, and the researcher was only concerned with gender differences and relationship inquiries. There were 38 male participants and 45 female participants. 54 (65%) of the participants considered themselves to be in a serious relationship: 7 were married, 1 separated, 8 engaged, 3 living with their partner, and 35 living apart. 29 (35%) of those participants have been in their current relationship for over 2 years. Moreover, 12 participants have been in their current relationship for 1-2 years, 6 participants for 1-6 months, 5 participants for 7-11 months, and 1 participant for less than one month.

Testing Materials

A 29 item forced- choice questionnaire was the measuring device utilized in the research. Gender was the only demographic question included in the survey, as it was the only pertinent factor that pertained to the evolutionary hypothesis, or the specific innate module. Relationship questions were also included, if applicable, including status and length of current relationship and the reasoning why the last relationship ended. 2 Likert scales, on a 7-point inferential, were intended to measure jealousy (7 items) and the desire for a committed relationship (10 items). The survey also included 7 set questions asking the participant to choose whether emotional or sexual infidelity was more distressing under varying circumstances, loosely based off of a survey utilized in research by Buss. The survey concluded with the ranking of 7 jealousy variables in order of importance. A confidentiality statement prefaced the survey with the researcher’s contact information.



The researcher wanted to replicate previous research that had been done exploring the controversial evolutionary view of jealousy. The desire for a committed relationship was another measure of interest added to compare a relationship with jealousy. After the relationship inquiries at the beginning of the survey, the participants were asked to not complete the commitment portion of the survey and skip to the jealousy scale if they were currently not in a relationship, thus acting as the control group. Due to the fairly innocuous content of the research, the survey did not have to go through the university’s review committee (IRB). The survey was field tested through the researcher’s experimental psychology class. The necessary revisions were made before the actual participants received the survey. The survey which was used can be found in Appendix A.



            A more in depth look at demographics indicated that 37 (26%) of the participants’ previous relationships ended due to personality differences. Boredom was the second most frequented variable, being chosen 18(13%) times. The variable of partner infidelity ranked fourth in relationship demise, with a frequency of 15(11%). Only 3(2%) participants indicated that their previous relationship ended due to personal infidelity. Therefore, 13% of the participants’ relationships terminated due to some type of infidelity. A variable was created from the data, combining both personal and partner infidelity. An independent T-test was utilized to reveal if there was a relationship between previous negative experience with infidelity and the composite jealousy score. The results indicated that the 18 participants (M=25.28), who specified that their previous relationships had ended due to infidelity, had significantly greater composite jealousy scores than the 55 participants (M=20.95) who did not specify their previous relationships ending due to infidelity, t (71) = -2.259, p=.027.



Table 1: Independent Samples T-test: Composite Jealousy and Infidelity


A frequency table was assessed from an ordinal question on the survey, asking for the participant to rank variables in the order of how jealous they are of them. The variable of physical appearances was chosen the most frequently, at 29.3%. Moreover, it was ranked as a 1-3, 1 being the most important, 43 times (7 being the least important). The variable of money was chosen as the most important, or triggering the most jealousy, at 21.1%; it was also chosen as a 1-3  36 times. The confidence variable had the third highest frequency.    

To analyze commitment levels in relationship to gender, an independent samples T-test was used. The analysis comparing composite commitment scores between males and females indicated that female scores (M=56.75) did not differ significantly from male scores (M=52.63), t(58)= -1.521, p=.149.


Table 2: Independent Samples T-test: Composite Commitment and Gender



Exploring the notion that females are innately more jealous than men, as they are predominately associated with emotion, an independent samples T-test analysis comparing composite jealousy scores between males and females was analyzed. Contrary to many individuals’ perceptions stemming from gender roles, the results indicated that female scores (M=22.75) did not differ significantly from male scores (M=20.91),    t(80)= -1.180, p=. 235, though the mean score for females was slightly higher.       



Table 3: Independent Samples T-test: Composite Jealousy and Gender

The Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient was used to assess the relationship between the composite jealousy scores and the composite commitment scores. No correlation was found between the two variables (r= -.037, p=.779).

Table 4: Correlations: Composite Jealousy and Composite Commitment



To assess the relationship between gender and the 7 questions pertaining to emotional and sexual infidelity, a crosstabulation was run. After running an independent T-test analysis on each question, it was found that question 1 was the only one with statistically significant results, t(79)= 1.959, p=.048. The results suggest that both males and females were significantly more distressed by sexual activity. The question read as follows: I would be more distressed if: (Please circle the best answer)

Table 5: Crosstabulation and Independent Samples T-test: Gender and Type 1



In relationship to the evolutionary view of jealousy, the research suggests that males are more jealous of sexual infidelity, as it was chosen more frequently than the emotional infidelity as more distressing, though females were also found to be more distressed by sexual infidelity, with exception of the questions in which the infidelity is with a highly educated and highly paid individual or a physically unattractive individual. The difference in frequencies was not significant for either gender, however, with exception to question type 1 in which both males and females were significantly more distressed imagining their partner having sexual activity with a member of the opposite sex than imagining them having a deep meaningful conversation with a member of the opposite sex. These findings may have been significant due to the language of the question. Deep meaningful conversations may not necessarily mean emotional infidelity; sexual activity is a much more threatening statement. Moreover, the sample of students may have skewed the results as a greater amount of sexuality may be reinforced on college campuses.

The hypotheses were not supported. Females’ overall jealousy scores were not significantly higher than males’ overall jealousy scores, though their mean was slightly higher, which is in the direction of my hypothesis. Moreover, there was no correlation between the desire for a committed relationship and jealousy. Though insignificant, the correlation was negative. Future research may suggest that the greater desire of an individual to obtain a committed relationship, the lower their composite jealousy score would be, which was contrary to the original assumption. It may be that a committed relationship also encompasses a greater amount of trust. Minimal research has been done relating relationship commitment to jealousy.

More research needs to be conducted related to previous experiences rather than focusing on an evolutionary view of jealousy, which limits gender differences in regards to maternal and paternal instincts. Significant findings surfaced from the research, such as past experience with infidelity yielding a significantly higher composite jealousy score. Immediate applicability could be initiated in counseling programs focusing on mending the detrimental effects of previous infidelity experience in order to regain trust in future partners and establish healthy relationships.



Archer, J., & Webb, I. (2006, September). The Relation Between Scores on the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire and Aggressive Acts, Impulsiveness, Competitiveness, Dominance, and Sexual Jealousy. Aggressive Behavior, 32(5), 464-473

Barrett, H., Frederick, D., Haselton, M., & Kurzban, R. (2006, September). Can Manipulations of Cognitive Load Be Used to Test Evolutionary Hypotheses?. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(3), 513-518.

Buss, M. (2001-12) Cognitive Biases and Emotional Wisdom in the Evolution of Conflict Between the Sexes. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10(6),219(5).

Buss, M. Sexual Strategies Theory. (1998-02). Journal of Sex Research, 35(1), 19(13).

Buss, M. & Larsen R. Sex Differences in Jealousy. (1996-11). Psychological Science, 7(6), 373(3).

Cann and Baucom. Volume 11, 2004,index. (2004, December). Personal Relationships. Academic Search Premier database.

Daly & Wilson(2006). Evolutionary Psychology. The Oxford Companion to the Mind in Politics and Social Sciences. Sage Journal Articles.

Eisler, R., Franchina, J., Moore, T., Honeycutt, H., & Rhatigan, D. (2000, January). Masculine gender role stress and intimate abuse: Effects of gender relevance of conflict situations on men's attributions and affective responses. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 1(1), 30-36.

Green, M., & Sabini, J. (2006, May). Gender, Socioeconomic Status, Age, and Jealousy: Emotional Responses to Infidelity in a National Sample. Emotion, 6(2), 330-334.

Harris, C. (2000, June). Psychophysiological responses to imagined infidelity: The specific innate modular view of jealousy reconsidered. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(6), 1082-1091.

Hughes, S. et al. Sex Differences in Mating Strategies. (2004). Sexualities, Evolution, and Gender. 6(1), 3(11).

Knox, D., Breed, R., & Zusman, M. (2007, June). College men and jealousy. College Student Journal, 41(2), 494-498. PsycINFO database.

Sabini, J., & Silver, M. (2005, August). Gender and jealousy: Stories of infidelity. Cognition & Emotion, 19(5), 713-727.

Shackelford, T. & Buss M. Spousal Esteem. Journal of Family Psychology, Vol 11(4), Dec. 1997.pp.478-488. PsycArticles.

Shackelford, T., Voracek, M., Schmitt, D., Buss, D., Weekes-Shackelford, V., & Michalski, R. (2004). Romantic jealousy in early adulthood and in later life. Human Nature, 15(3), 283-300. PsycINFO database.






Appendix A


Thank you for your participation in the survey. Participation is on a voluntary basis.

You have the freedom to withdraw at any time. The information provided is anonymous and confidential. If you should have any questions, don’t hesitate to contact me, Sarah Gross, at or Dr. Bosse, x. 6882 or at


Please indicate the best answer to the following questions by placing a check mark in the appropriate spaces.


Gender: M____



1. I am currently in a serious relationship: Yes____


                                                        If answered no, please answer question 4 and then skip to question 15


2. If currently in a relationship, the status of that relationship is:




            ____Living with a partner

            ____In a relationship but living apart

            ____Other: __________________________


3. I have been in my current relationship for:

            ____Less than 1 month

            ____1-6 mos.

            ____ 7-11 mos.

            ____1-2 years

            ____Over 2 years


4. My last relationship ended due to: (Check all that apply)

            ____My infidelity

            ____My partner’s infidelity

            ____Personality differences


            ____Geographic distances

            ____Time limitations



            ____I met someone new

            ____My partner met someone new

            ____I am uncertain

            ____ Addictions

            ____Sexual incompatibilities







Please circle the best answer to the following statements using the scale below


         1                    2                     3                     4                  5                 6              7

Strongly Disagree     Disagree      Somewhat Disagree   Undecided   Somewhat Agee    Agree    Strongly Agree



5. I would be upset if my partner decided to leave me:

         1                    2                     3                     4                  5                 6              7


6. A committed relationship is important to me:

         1                    2                     3                     4                  5                 6              7


7. I am eager to satisfy my partner:

         1                    2                     3                     4                  5                 6              7


8. I take into account my partners feelings before making a big decision:

         1                    2                     3                     4                  5                 6              7


9. I cannot imagine a future without my partner:

         1                    2                     3                     4                  5                 6              7


10. I am willing to make sacrifices for this relationship to work:

         1                    2                     3                     4                  5                 6              7


11. I find myself doubting the longevity of my relationship:

         1                    2                     3                     4                  5                 6              7


12. I am tempted by the idea of dating other people:

         1                    2                     3                     4                  5                 6              7


13. If my partner had a better career opportunity out -of -state, I would set aside my current obligations and move along:

         1                    2                     3                     4                  5                 6              7


14. I do things I know my partner does not approve of:

         1                    2                     3                     4                  5                 6              7




         1                    2                     3                     4                  5                 6              7

Strongly Disagree     Disagree      Somewhat Disagree   Undecided   Somewhat Agee    Agree    Strongly Agree


For the following questions, please refer to a current or past relationship.



15. I am a jealous person:

         1                    2                     3                     4                  5                 6              7


16. I do not like for my partner to associate with the opposite sex:

        1                    2                     3                     4                  5                 6              7


17. I am worried my partner will leave me for someone better:

        1                    2                     3                     4                  5                 6              7


18. I become anxious when my partner is out with friends:

        1                    2                     3                     4                  5                 6              7


19. I sometimes compare myself to a partner’s friends of my same sex:

        1                    2                     3                     4                  5                 6              7


20. If my partner falls in love with someone else, it is likely that they are having a sexual      relationship:

        1                    2                     3                     4                  5                 6              7


21. If my partner is having a sexual relationship with someone, it is likely that they are in love:

        1                    2                     3                     4                  5                 6              7


 22. I would be more distressed if: (Please circle the best answer)

(1) My partner was having deep meaningful conversations with a member of the      opposite sex

            (2) My partner was having sexual activity with a member of the opposite sex


23. I would be more distressed if my partner left me for someone who:

            (1) Was more sexually satisfying

            (2) Was more intellectually stimulating


24. It would be easier for me to mend a relationship with my partner if the infidelity was:

            (1) A deep, emotional connection

            (2) A sexual connection


25. The person your partner is interested in has a high paying job and is highly educated:               I would be more distressed:

            (1) Imagining a deep, emotional attachment

            (2) Imagining passionate sexual intercourse


 26. The person your partner is interested in is unemployed and uneducated:

            I would be more distressed:

            (1) Imagining a deep, emotional attachment

            (2) Imagining passionate sexual intercourse


27. The person your partner is interested in is physically attractive:

            I would be more distressed:

            (1) Imagining a deep, emotional attachment

            (2) Imagining passionate sexual intercourse


28. The person your partner is interested in is physically unattractive:

            I would be more distressed:

            (1) Imagining a deep, emotional attachment

            (2) Imagining passionate sexual intercourse



29. I am most jealous of others’: (Rank in order of importance, 1= most important)


            ____Physical appearances


            ____Relationships with significant others

            ____Relationships with friends







Thanks for your time!!!!