Rural and Urban Differences between Adolescent Females’ Perceptions of Body Image

 Jennifer A. Hutchison

Abstract

In an extension of research on body image in adolescent females, the present study attempted to see if there is a relationship between self-perception of body image and where one lives.  It hypothesized that adolescent females (n=106) who live in rural areas (n=67) will report higher positive body images than those girls who live in urban areas (n=39).  The females’ feelings on body image were operationalized through a survey that compared their feelings on their bodies and utilized Franzoi and Shields’ (1984) Body Esteem Scale (BES).  The bulk of the hypothesis was not supported at a significant level, the BES indicated (t= -1.44, p value= .15), however, some elements of it were supported.  These results were significant because they emphasize the importance of considering residence of female adolescents when conducting research on them.  Recommendations for future research would be to expand on this research because there has been little research done on this relating to this relationship.

 

            Body Image, which refers to the feelings and reflections that an individual has about his or her body (Rosenbaum, 1979; Schilder, 1935; as cited in Cecil & Stanley 1997), is of critical importance during adolescence.  Female body image is intimately bound up with subjective perceptions of weight and, perhaps, no age group is more preoccupied with body image and appearance than adolescent girls (Attic & Brooks-Gunn, 1989 & Bruch, 1981; as cited in Page, 1991).  As researchers have pointed out, during this period the body undergoes many physiological and psychological changes that affect adolescents’ self perceptions (Erikson 1968; Peterson, Schulenberg, Abramowitz, Offer, & Jarcho, 1984; Schonfield, 1969; as cited in Cecil & Stanley 1997).  Furthermore, adolescents are bombarded with messages of female thinness as the desired body image.  Posavac (1998) found that because current media images of ideal female beauty are narrowly defined, exaggerated, and emphasize thinness, exposure to media images make possible the discrepancy between a female perceiver’s conceptions of her own weight and the standard accepted by society.  Therefore, where thinness is undeniably a strived beauty ideal, young women in the process of establishing their identity are especially vulnerable to dissatisfaction with their body image (Senekal, Steyn, Mashego, Teresa-Ann, Helena 2001).  “Dissatisfaction with body image and overestimation of body weight are very characteristic of adolescent females” (Fabian & Thompson, 1989; as cited Page, 1991 p. 203) and thus, deserves investigation.

            Various research studies have supported the overwhelming prevalence of body image concerns among young women.  They have indicated that adolescent girls are particularly concerned with the appearance of their body and weight.  For instance, Page (1991) found that only 4.8% of a sample of adolescent girls reported being “completely satisfied” with their weight and 18.2% were “satisfied”.  Conversely, 14.0% said they were “completely dissatisfied” and 34.7% said they were “dissatisfied” and the remainder (28.3%) of the girls reported being “neutral” in regard to their feelings about their present weight.  Another aspect of this study also indicated that 54.6% of the sampled girls rated themselves as “too fat”.  Page (1991) also reported that in another sample of adolescent females in which 81% were within the normal weight range for their height, Eisele, Hertsgaard and Light (1986) found that 78% wished they weighed less.  These studies are just a few of the numerous reports of low body esteem among female adolescents.  These numbers raise great concern for this population because dissatisfaction with body image can serve as a precipitating factor to several harmful consequences.

            Researchers such as Stice, Hayward, Cameron, Killen, and Taylor (2000) have found that because puberty moves girls away from the current thin ideal, it can lead to body image and eating-related risk factors that may contribute to the higher rates of major depression observed among girls during adolescence.  Additionally, researchers have indicated that adolescent depression is associated with suicide attempts and high rates of comorbid anxiety disorders, disruptive behavior disorders, and substance abuse and predicts future adjustment problems, including academic failure, marital difficulties, unemployment, substance abuse, delinquency and legal problems (Birmaher et al., 1996; Gotlib, Lewsinsohn & Steeley, 1998; Newcomb & Bentler, 1988; as cited in Stice, et. al., 2000).  “The rate of depression increases dramatically for girls during the second decade of life, and by late adolescence, twice as many girls are depressed as boys” (Hankin et al., 1998; Newcomb and Bentler, 1988 as cited in Stice, et al., 2000).  The body dissatisfaction among adolescent girls may contribute directly to depression, “because appearance is a central evaluative dimension for females in Western cultures” (Stice, et al., 2000).  The depression may also be triggered by the low self-esteem that body image dissatisfaction can precipitate.  Moreover, body image dissatisfaction is thought to contribute to dieting and eating-related disorders.  Cecil and Stanley (1997) found that lower body esteem is predictive of dieting behaviors (Attic et al., 1987; Carruth and Goldberg, 1990; Davies and Furnham, 1986), bingeing and purging activities among female adolescents (Paxton et al., 1991), lower levels of self-esteem among female adolescents (Fisher, Schneider, Pegler, & Napolitano, 1991), and participation in health risk activities such as smoking and alcohol use (Fisher et al., 1991).

            Perhaps the weight-regulating behaviors that body image disturbances can lead to are of greatest concern.  In some cases, girls’ preoccupation with body image can turn into a pathological concern with body image, which is typically an intense fear of being fat and is associated with two eating disorders, Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa (Feingold & Mazella, 1998).  Anorexia is an obsessive compulsion for thinness, and it is characterized by self-starvation, intense exercise, and an extremely poor body image (Feingold & Mazella, 1998).  Bulimia is another eating disorder associated with periods of intense overeating or bingeing, followed by attempts to prevent weight gain by self-induced vomiting and other unhealthy methods (Feingold & Mazella, 1998).  Page (1991) found that girls who believed themselves as being too fat were significantly more likely than any other group of girls to: practice in self-induced vomiting; use water pills (diuretics); use laxatives; go on very restrictive diets; use strenuous exercise to lose weight; fast; and use diet pills.  Such studies, along with many others, reinforce the serious consequences that poor body image can lead to in adolescent girls.

            In order to gain a better understanding of how body image affects adolescents, numerous research studies have also been conducted to study the differences that have incurred between adolescents and their perceptions of body image.  For instance, gender has been frequently examined to distinguish differences between young women and men in their perceptions of body image.  These studies have typically indicated that girls feel less positively toward their bodies than boys (Davis, Dionne, & Lazarus, 1996; McCauley, Mintx, & Glenn, 1988; Cash, Winstead, & Janda, 1986; Mintz & Betz, 1986, as cited in McKinley, 1998). Several studies have also focused on ethnic differences, which have generally indicated that Caucasian girls have lower esteem in regard to their bodies than any other ethnic group (Padrul, 1999).  However, a scarcity of studies has been done to determine if there are any differences between female adolescents’ perceptions of body image and where they reside.  The current study hypothesized that female adolescents living in urban areas will report higher body image dissatisfaction in comparison to female adolescents living in rural areas who will report lower body image dissatisfaction.

        MacGillivray and Wilson (1997) stated that dramatic physical, psychological and social changes are expected to take place during the transitional development of adolescence; however, most research on adolescents and appearance has focused on them as if they were a homogenous group.  However, to talk about adolescents as if they were all interchangeable would be to potentially flaw the research that is done regarding them.  Perhaps it may be that body image is a concept that is so homogenized in society that there may not be any rural or urban differences found between adolescent females’ perceptions of it, but it seems necessary to determine if differences do exist to help make future research more applicable.  Since little research has appeared to done in the United States to examine if there are any differences, the researcher looked to international studies conducted that have implied differences do exist among female adolescents’ perceptions of body image and where they live.  For example, a study conducted among South African young women did find that differences occurred in females’ body image conceptions depending on their rural or urban origins.  “Females with urban origins were more likely to be restrained eaters, to have attempted weight reduction, to aim for weight loss and to fear weight gain” (Senekal, et al., 2001).  Perhaps there were cultural differences present that may have accounted for this that are not present in the United States, along with more pronounced differences in urban and rural areas.  Still, one cannot help but wonder if there are any similar implications for American adolescent girls.  Given the importance of body image concern among teenage girls, it seems only appropriate that possible differences between body image and residence be explored.

Method

Participants

        The sample consisted of 106 female adolescents ranging in age from 14 years to 18 years old (M= 15.88, std dev.= 1.4).  Of these participants, 39 were from an urban high school in St. Louis, MO, with a student population of approximately 1,750.  The city of St. Louis consists of approximately 395,000 people and the suburban division this particular high school resides in consists of approximately 29,000 people.  The other 67 participants were from a rural high school in New Athens, IL, with a student population of approximately 200 and a town population of 2,000.  These two school districts were 43 miles apart.  Of the total participants, 88.7% were Caucasian, 5.7% were African-American, 2.8% indicated “other”, 1.9% did not respond, and .9% were Hispanic.

Testing Materials

        A survey was administered and began with basic demographic questions such as age and race, also they were asked to give their weight, height, and desired weight if they were not satisfied with their current weight.  Then ten questions, which the researcher has titled as the body assessment survey (modified from www.indstate.edu) were asked of them to help determine how they felt about their bodies, such as, “do you remark negatively about your body to yourself or others?” (see Appendix B).  All responses were measured by a 5-point Likert scale in which a “1” indicated never and a “5” indicated always.  The Body Esteem Scale (BES) (Franzoi and Shields, 1984) was then employed as it has been proven to be psychometrically sound among adult samples (Blascovich & Tomaka, 1991 as cited in Cecil & Stanley 1997) and preliminary data has indicated that it is also reliable for adolescents (Cecil & Stanley, 1997).  The BES is a 35 item inventory that measures participants’ feelings about a specific body part or function such as, eyes, weight, and physical coordination (see Appendix C).  All responses from this scale were measured by a 5-point Likert scale in which a “1” reflected strong negative feelings and a “5” reflected strong positive feelings.  The subscale for Weight Concern was examined from this as well; it is ten items from the BES dealing specifically with weight concerns with body parts or functions such as hips and thighs.  The Body Esteem Scale contains two additional subscales, Sexual Attractiveness and Physical Condition that were not used in this study.

Procedure

        The survey was administered to female adolescents at the urban and rural high school at faculty discretion.  Due to their ambiguous definitions, there were no standardized definitions met for rural and urban areas, other than the towns and the high schools chosen seemed to be sufficient for the purposes of this study.  On the survey, a cover letter explained to the participants that this was a survey being used for research on how adolescent females felt about their bodies (see Appendix A).  It was completely voluntary and anonymous.  Actual and ideal weight discrepancies were compared among each sample.  A Body Mass Index (BMI) was also computed by reported current weight and height to determine the number of girls that were within the normal or below normal guidelines for weight to height ratio, but still wished to be thinner.  The BMI was calculated using the standardized formula of dividing weight in kilograms by height in meters squared.  Overweight was defined as a BMI of 24.9 and anything below that was defined as normal or underweight, however no distinction between normal and underweight was made in this study.  The scores from the body assessment survey were compared among each sample.  Finally, scores from the BES and the Weight Concern subscale were compared among each sample.  Race was also analyzed to determine its potential role in the study and to see if it remained consistent with previous research.  Analyses were done with the assistance of a statistics computer software program known as SPSS.  This procedure allowed the researcher to determine if there were any rural and urban differences present between adolescent females’ perceptions of body image.

Results

            Actual and ideal reported weight discrepancies were used to determine the percentage of girls that were and were not satisfied with their weight.  Of the urban high school sample, 46.2% reported being satisfied with their weight, 53.8% reported being dissatisfied with their weight with 20.5% of them who wished they weighed 20 pounds or more less (M= 7.59 std. dev.= 10.23). Of the rural high school, 49.3% reported being satisfied with their weight, 50.7% reported being dissatisfied with their weight with 24% of them who wished they weighed 20 pounds or more less (M= 9.78, std. dev.= 13.26).

            The BMI was then used to determine what percentage of girls were within the normal or below normal guidelines for weight to height ratio, but still wished to be thinner.  Of the urban high school sample, 74.4% fell within or below the normal guidelines for their weight to height ratio, yet as indicated above, 53.8% reported wanting to be thinner.  Of the rural high school sample, 77.6% fell within or below the normal guidelines for their weight to height ratio, yet as also indicated above, 50.7% wished they were thinner.

            A t-test was performed to examine any possible differences between each sample for their responses on the body assessment survey.  There were 50 possible total points, and a lower score emphasized more positive feelings about their bodies, with a 10 being the most positive.  A higher score indicated more negative feelings about their bodies, with a 50 being the most dissatisfied.  The t-test revealed no significant differences (t= -2.0, p-value= .069); however, the means were going in the predicted direction (urban high school M= 28.04, rural high school M= 24.92).

            Another t-test was executed to determine if there were any possible differences between each sample on their responses to the Body Esteem Scale (Franzoi & Shields, 1984).  There were 175 possible total points and on this scale; a higher score indicated a more positive body image, with a 175 being the most satisfied.  A lower score indicated a more negative body image, with a 35 being the most dissatisfied.  There were also no significant differences found between the scores on the BES for each sample (t= -1.44, p-value= .15); however, the means were also going in the predicted direction (urban high school M= 115.59, rural high school M= 121.79).

            A correlation test was run between these two scales for both schools in anticipation of a negative correlation.  This is because as the score for the body assessment survey went down, it would be expected that the scores on the BES would go up.  A significant negative correlation was found between these two tests (r= -5.33, p-value= .001), as depicted by the graph below.

            Another t-test was performed which examined any possible differences between each sample for the Weight Concern subscale of the BES.  There were 50 possible total points in which a higher score indicated less preoccupation with weight concern, with a 50 being the highest.  A lower score indicated more preoccupation with weight concern, with a 10 being the lowest.  These results did come up significant (t= -1.98, p-value= .05), as depicted by the graph below.

Three additional t-tests were carried out to examine any possible racial differences this study may have incorporated; it only focused on Caucasian and African-American participants because there was inadequate participation from any other races.  The first t-test examined any racial differences between the scores from the body assessment survey. These results did come back significant (t= 3.518, p-value= .012). The second test examined any possible differences between the BES scores and there were no significant differences found (t= -1.98, p-value= .061), but the mean for African American participants was higher in comparison to Caucasian participants (Caucasian M= 117.23, African American M= 133.83).  The third t-test was ran to examine any possible difference on the Weight Concern subscale of the BES and still no significant differences were found (t=-.856, p-value= .425), but the mean for African American participants was again higher in comparison to Caucasian participants (Caucasian M= 29.19, African American M= 32.0)

Discussion

As expected, satisfaction with body weight was low for both samples, despite that over 70% of the girls from each sample were within or below the normal guidelines for their weight to height ratio as determined by the BMI.  The percentages for both groups were extremely parallel with one another.  If these percentages were evaluated alone, it would appear that there were no differences among rural and urban female adolescents’ perceptions of body image.  However, these percentages have not indicated to what degree these girls were dissatisfied with their body image.

Upon further analysis, the researcher was able to distinguish some differences among the extent of dissatisfaction with body image for each sample.  The differences among the scores for the body assessment survey did not come up significant, however the means went in the predicted direction.  This alone, may not seem valuable, but the fact that the means for the BES, although not significant either, also went in the predicted direction indicated that there may be some differences in the degree of discontentment with body image for the rural and urban samples.  This demonstrated that urban female adolescents seem to be more dissatisfied with their body image than their rural counterparts.  This appeared to be especially true in the area of weight as supported by the results on the Weight Concern subscale of the BES.  These results indicated a significant difference between urban and rural teenage girls’ preoccupation with weight.  It confirmed that urban female youth appear to be more concerned and unhappy with their body weight than rural female youth.

            The role that race played in this study does not appear to be an extremely important one, however, it seemed notable to at least investigate any differences.  There was very limited participation in this survey from other races.  The only differences explored were between the Caucasian participants and the African-American participants, because there was insufficient participation among any other races as indicated earlier.  There were only six African-American total participants, so it would appear that a larger representative sample would be needed to further investigate differences.  However, the first analysis did come back significant on the body assessment survey.  The two additional tests performed indicated that the means for African-American female adolescents were higher than the means for the Caucasian participants on the BES scores and for its subscale of Weight Concern.  It is highly plausible that if there had been more African-American participants, that consistent significant differences would have been discovered, as indicated by the sample size available.  The significant difference on the body assessment survey and the differences in the means on the BES and Weight Concern subscale were consistent with previous research on ethnic differences in body image, which has established that African-American young women typically feel more positively toward their bodies than Caucasian young women.

            The overall objective of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between body image and geographic location in regards to female adolescents.  It furthered this concept by hypothesizing that adolescent females with urban origins were more likely to feel less positively toward their bodies than adolescent females with rural origins.  The results to this study should be considered important regardless of whether or not any significant differences were discovered.  This is because this study appeared to be a novel finding, in that the researcher was unable to locate any similar research that prospectively examined this relationship.  Therefore, just to determine if any differences do or do not exist is important because it appears that this has not been substantially established in the United States.  It is of essential importance to be aware of any possible differences that exist in researching adolescents’ perception of body image, especially girls since they are so affected by this concern.  This enables a researcher to take these variables into account when studying self-perceptions of body image. So, if it were the case, that there were not any significant differences detected, that by itself would be significant because it would allow researchers to eliminate this concern in future studies.  It may also suggest that girls are so inflicted with body image concerns, that it indeed this concept has become homogenized among adolescent girls.  It would also indicate that no matter where a girl lived, she could not escape the pressures to be thin.  If there were no differences found between these samples, these would just be a few of the implications.

.               However, despite that some of the results were not significant; there was still enough evidence to support the notion that a relationship does exist between body image and residence.  It appears from this study that there were not any notable differences between the occurrence of body image dissatisfaction and geographic location, but the degree to which they were dissatisfied did appear to vary depending on rural or urban origins.  Thus, the hypothesis was somewhat supported. This was significant because it supported previous research that has shown the overwhelming prevalence of adolescent female body image dissatisfaction, but has generally not take residence into consideration.  It was also vital because it implied that rural and urban origins may very well have an effect on the extent to which an adolescent female may feel unhappy with her body image.  This was shown in an international article about South African adolescent females, so it looks as if this also may be held true for American adolescent females.  If this is accurate then, it should modify the way a researcher examines body image among adolescents.  It seems quite necessary to take into account where a teenage girl lives when looking at body image.

At the same time, these results have suggested that body image dissatisfaction is an Americanized problem in the United States and prevention efforts should reach both rural and urban girls.  However, perhaps prevention efforts should be more intensely focused on urban teen girls since they appear to be more intensely focused on this problem and this can lead to more serious consequences such as eating disorders and depression.

            There were limitations to this study that should be acknowledged and discussed.  This study was correlational, that is, it just examined a potential relationship between body image and geographic location.  Causal inferences cannot be made from this study.  It is not known if one’s rural or urban origin causes differences in how one feels about their body.  There may be other extraneous variables to help account for these differences that were not explored or controlled for. 

            Another limitation to this study was that the responses were gained through a self-reported survey.  It required the participants to report their current weight and self-reported weight is likely to be underestimated especially by women (Betz, Mintz, & Speakmon, 1994; as cited in McKinley, 1998), which future studies may wish for the researcher to physically measure the participants’ weight and height to eliminate this concern.  It also asked the participants to rate various parts of their bodies that they might not have been comfortable answering, particularly since they were adolescents. 

            Another limitation to this study was actually inadvertently implied in a question on the body assessment survey.  It asked the participants, “does your mood affect the way you feel about your body?” (see Appendix B).  The majority of the participants from both schools answered sometimes, frequently, or always.  If this was the case, then the responses may also be indicative of one’s mood at the time they took the survey, rather than just one’s feelings about their bodies.

            Areas for future study on this relationship are endless because this appeared to be a relatively novel study.  One area might include looking more closely at causal factors in these differences.  Also, since it appeared that urban girls were more conflicted with body image disturbances, then it would be more likely they would participate further in unhealthy eating habit.  So, another area of future study might include looking more closely at eating and dieting related behavior differences.  Other studies could  simply focus on replicating similar studies to this one to help determine the reliability of this study.  Body image concern among female adolescents is clearly an area of study that should not be ignored and the differences among this population needs continuous investigation.          

 References

Cecil, H., & Stanley, M.A.  (1997).  Reliability and Validity of Adolescents’ Scores on the Body Esteem Scale.  Educational & Psychological Measurement, 57, 340-357.  Retrieved Oct. 24, 2001, from Academic Search Elite database.

Feingold, A., & Mazella, R.  (1998).  Gender Differences in Body Image Increasing.  Psychological     Science, 9, 190-195.

Franzoi, S., & Shields, S.  (1984).  The Body Esteem Scale:  Multidimensional Structure and Sex Differences in a College Population.  Journal of Personality Assessment, 48, 173-178.

 Melody, A.G., Eich, C., Kephart, B., Peterson, D.  (2000).  Relationship among Body Image, Sex, and Popularity of High School Students.  Perceptual and Motor Skills, 90, 1187-1193.

 MacGillivray, M.S., & Wilson, J.D. (1997).  Clothing and Appearance among Early, Middle, and Late Adolescents. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 15, 43-49.

 Mckinley, N.M. (1998).  Gender Differences in Undergraduates’ Body Esteem:  the mediating effect of objectified body consciousness and actual/ideal weight discrepancy.  Retrieved on Oct. 23, 2001 from the World Wide Web:  http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m2294/n1-2_v39/21136464

 Molloy, B.L. (1998).  Body Image and Self-Esteem: a Comparison of African-American and  Caucasian Women.  Retrieved on Oct. 24, 2001 from World Wide Web: http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m2294/n7-8_v38/20914081

Padrul, P.  (1999).  Ethnic Differences in Body Image Among College Campus Women: Implementation of Improved Ethnic Identity Measures.  Retrieved on Nov. 6, 2001 from World Wide Web:            www.google.com/Pauline’sResearch

Page, R.  (1991).  Indicators of Psychosocial Distress Among Adolescent Females who Perceive Themselves as Fat.  Child Study Journal, 21, 203-212.  Retrieved on Nov. 16, 2001 from Academic Search Elite database.

 Posavac, H.D.  (1998).  Exposure to Media Images of Female Attractiveness and Concern with Body Weight among Young Women.  Retrieved on Nov. 11, 2001 from World Wide Web:            http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m2294/n3-4_v38/20574383

Senekal, M., Steyn, P.N., Mashego T.B., & Helena, J.N.  (2001).  Evaluation of Body Shape, Stice, E., Hayward, C., Cameron, R.P., Killen, J.D., & Taylor, C.B.  (2000).  Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 438-444.  Retrieved on (n.d.) from PsycArticles database.

 Student Health Promotion (n.d).  How’s Your Body Image:  A Self-Assessment Instrument. Retrieved on Oct. 24, 2001 from Indiana State University Web Page:http://indstate.edu/shp/bodyi

         

Appendix A

 Hi Students!  My name is Jenna Hutchison and I am a senior at McKendree College whose major is Psychology.  I am conducting a research project to gain a better understanding of how adolescent girls feel about their bodies, but I can’t do it without your help.  I have put together a survey that is completely anonymous, confidential, and it is completely up to you if you would like to fill it out.  It is a short survey that asks questions about how you feel about your body and you may choose to skip any questions that you are uncomfortable with.  Please remember that there are no “right” or “wrong” answers and that your honesty on them is truly appreciated.  If these questions raise any concerns you may have please feel free to discuss them with your counselor at school or anyone else who may be able to assist you.  Thank you so much for your help!!!!

1.  How old are you?           _______

2.  What is your ethnic background?  Please circle one.

  1) Caucasian  2) Hispanic  3)African-American  4) Other  Please indicate:  ___________

 3.  How much do you currently weigh?          ________

 4.  Are you satisfied with your weight?  Please circle one.

                 YES              NO

   If you answered NO, how much do you wish you weighed?       ________

 5.  How tall are you?  Please put in feet and inches and round up or down to whole inch.       

      For example, 5ft. 3in.                     ________

 Body Assessment Survey (modified from www.indstate.edu)

Please use the following scale to help you answer the questions below.  Put the number that best corresponds with your feelings in the lines below the questions.

    1¬---------------2-------------------3-------------------4-----------------®5

Never        Infrequently        Sometimes         Frequently            Always

 1)      Does your mood affect the way you feel about your body?

  

2)       Is it hard for you to accept compliments about the way you look?

3)       Do you avoid situations where others would see your body, such as swimming parties or social situations that call for scanty dress?

 1¬---------------2-------------------3-------------------4-----------------®5

Never         Infrequently        Sometimes         Frequently         Always  

4)       Do you think you look bad on days you haven’t exercised?

 5)       Do you remark negatively about your body to yourself or others? 

6)       In thinking about your body, do you focus on the parts you believe need improvement?

       7)       Do you feel threatened or depressed by girls you perceive as more
             attractive than yourself?

       8)       How often do you find yourself asking others—friends, boyfriend,                 parents, etc.—how you look?

       9)       How often do you worry about your weight?

       10)      Are you self-conscious about eating fully in front of others?

 

Appendix C

The Body Esteem Scale (Franzoi and Shields, 1984)

 Instructions:  On this page are listed a number of body parts and functions.  Please read each item and indicate how you feel about this part or function of YOUR OWN BODY using the following scale:

 1 = Have strong negative feelings

2 = Have moderate negative feelings

3 = Have no feeling one way or the other

4 = Have moderate positive feelings

5 = Have strong positive feelings

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  1. Body Scent                                     ____                   

  2. Appetite                                          ____

  3. Nose                                           ____

  4. Physical Stamina                            ____

  5. Reflexes                                         ____

  6. Lips                                                ____

  7. Muscular Strength                         ____           

  8. Waist                                              ____

  9. Energy Level                                  ____

  10. Thighs                                            ____

  11. Ears                                                ____

  12. Bicep                                              ____

  13. Chin                                                ____

  14. Body Build                                      ____

  15. Physical Coordination                     ____

  16. Buttocks                                           ____

  17. Agility                                              ____

  18. Width of Shoulders                          ____

  19. Arms                                                ____

  20. Chest or Breast                                ____

  21. Appearance of Eyes                         ____

  22. Cheeks/Cheekbones                         ____

  23. Hips                                                  ____

  24. Legs                                                  ____

  25. Figure or Physique                            ____

  26. Sex Drive                                          ____

  27. Feet                                                   ____

  28. Sex Organs                                        ____  

  29. Appearance of Stomach                     ____

  30. Health                                                ____

  31. Sex Activities                                     ____

  32. Body Hair                                           ____

  33. Physical Condition                              ____

  34. Face                                                     ____

  35. Weight                                                 ____